Google Inc. used two colorfully named (but completely legal) tax avoidance schemes—the Double Irish and the Dutch Sandwich
—to cut their taxes by $3.1 billion over the last three years.
The Double Irish
This shenanigan involves setting up a pair of companies in Ireland to disguise regular income as tax-deductible royalties on intellectual property.
Here's how it works: First, a parent corporation in the United States (like Google) sets up a small corporate subsidiary in Ireland—let's call it "S1." The parent then enters into a legal agreement that gives the European rights to all of its "intangible" products—like, say, an Internet search algorithm—to S1. In return, S1 agrees to help market or promote those products in some way within Europe. By virtue of this arrangement, all of the parent's European income from the products would be collected by S1.
The real trick comes next. At some point, S1 decides to relocate (at least on paper) its headquarters to Bermuda, which has no income tax. The company becomes a "dual resident," which means that, from the Irish point of view, it's subject to Bermuda tax law, but from the U.S. perspective, it's still incorporated in Ireland. To complete the scheme, the parent company then sets up a second Irish subsidiary (S2), which, importantly, chooses not
to beconsidered a corporation under U.S. law; this has the effect of hiding its finances from the IRS. Why are two Irish subsidiaries better than one? Because now S1 can license the parent company's products to S2 in exchange for a stream of hefty royalty checks. This means that S2 can collect all the income, and be taxed by Ireland at a relatively low rate of 12.5 percent (compared to 35 percent in the United States). But the royalties it's paying to S1 can be deducted from its income. In the end, S2 doesn't have to pay that much in taxes, and the "royalties" that make their way to S1 are tax-free.
Wait, wouldn't it be easier just to set up a subsidiary in tax-free Bermuda? Why would anyone opt for the Double Irish over the Single Bermudan? Because of tax treaties. When you transfer money within the EU, the government doesn't take a cut in the form of a withholding tax. When money goes directly to an unregulated country like Bermuda, however, it gets taxed at the origin country's normal rate.
The Dutch Sandwich
If you really want to get fancy, you can add another layer to chicanery and turn your Double Irish into a Dutch Sandwich. This ploy makes use of an agreement between Ireland and other EU countries to further reduce their tax burdens.
To make it work, the parent company sets up a third subsidiary (S3) in the Netherlands, with no other purpose than to funnel money from S2 to S1. Instead of licensing the parent's products directly to S2, the Bermuda-based S1 grants them to its Dutch partner, who then passes them along. In other words, S1 and S2 are the bread around an S3 Dutch meat sandwich. What good is that? The Irish don't tax money being moved among European countries (S2 to S3), and the Netherlands takes only a small fee for moving the money from S3 to S1. This makes it so the "royalties" checks can arrive in Bermuda virtually untaxed.
The problem with strategies like the Double Irish/Dutch Sandwich is that the money gets stuck outside of the United States, where the parent company can't use it for domestic projects. If the company tried to "repatriate" the money to the United States, the IRS would hit it with an income tax, making the whole routine for naught. There are some fancy ways around this limitation, however—each named after the letter of the subsection of the tax code on which it depends.
See Tax Day 2011: The Double Irish and the Dutch Sandwich: A field guide to exotic tax dodges. - By J. Bryan Lowder - Slate Magazine