Sorry to hear about your elbow. Welcome to the club, there are very few of us. I disclocated my elbow about 3 years ago for the first time, snowboarding. I would say healing time was a few months. I was back in a board within a few weeks though. I was working as an instructor at the time, and I got back on teaching begginers.
As for kayaking, I have had really bad luck unfortunatly. I have dislocated it 4 more times that I can remember right now. The first and most painful was surfing a large surgy wave. I was setting up to do a butt bounce blunt and I took a large bounce and my elbow hit the deck of my butt and poped out. Another time playing in a hole, and once creeking. Ohhh wait there was another one a wave...
The best advice I have gotten was to really use the PT rubber bands and build up as much strength in the elbow as possible. I also sometimes wear an elbow brace.
The good news is, it does not really effect your paddling. Once your healed back up, you really dont notice it very much. When I do notice it, it just feels "loose" and thats when you really need to be careful.
Sorry to hear about your elbow, and I hope you recover well!